underground mining introduction

  • Underground hard-rock mining

    Underground hard-rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate "hard" minerals, usually those containing metals, such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead also involves the same techniques used to excavate ores of gems, such as diamonds and rubies. Soft-rock mining refers to the excavation of softer minerals, such as salt ...

  • Underground Mining Methods and Equipment

    UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERING – Vol. II - Underground Mining Methods and Equipment - S. Okubo and J. Yamatomi ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) 2. Strength of the hanging wall, footwall, and ore body. 3. Economic value of the ore and grade distribution within the deposit.


     · "Automating a mining operation makes the entire process leaner, delivering more product with less cost, less waste, and less effort. The biggest gains are usually in underground mines, where processes are still largely stepwise in nature. By smoothing them into automated, sequence-organised tasks, most mining companies could

  • Open Cut and Underground Mining | iMINCO

    Underground Mining is generally used for areas where the mineral seam is too far underground for open cut mining to be of use. A tunnel, called a decline, is created to allow workers and machinery to reach the location of the minerals. Stope mining is used for most hard rock mining of minerals such as copper, silver, lead and zinc.


    Although underground mining is a less environmentally-destructive means of gaining access to an ore deposit, it is often more costly and entails greater safety risks than strip mining, including open-pit mining. While most large-scale mining projects involve open-pit mining, many large underground mines are in operation around the world. 1.1.3 ...


    Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. (SME) (303) 948-4200 / (800) 763-3132 SME advances the worldwide mining and …

  • Human Factors and Lighting for Underground Mining

    NIOSH Mining Program Underground mines present unique challenges that need to be addressed Low ceilings and very low reflectivity Constantly changing environment Strict lighting regulations Some areas not lit at all Shift work and darkness can increase fatigue Aging of the mining workforce.


    The Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation is grateful to Dr. Willard Lacy''s family for permission to publish this reformatted version of An Introduction to Geology and Hard Rock Mining.

  • Underground Training Systems

    Underground Training Systems (UTS) has been set up to offer courses in hardrock underground mining (Gold, Nickel, Copper, Diamonds and many other base metals...

  • Electricity in underground mines and tunnels

    8 INTERPRETIVE GUIDELINES // ELECTRICITY IN UNDERGROUND MINES AND TUNNELS 8 2.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE TWO REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS The HSE Act At the same time as the new Mining Regulations and amendments to the Electricity

  • CHAPTER 11 Mining Technology

    Mining Technology The Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1976 charged OTA to assess the feasibility of the use of deep-mining technology on leased areas. With the passage of the Sur-face Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 congressional interest in the study of deep underground mining technology shifted

  • Uranium Mining and Milling Wastes: An Introduction

    Later, mining was continued in underground mines. After the decrease of uranium prices since the 1980''s on the world market, underground mines became too expensive for most deposits; therefore, many mines were shut down. New uranium deposits discovered in Canada have uranium grades of …

  • Mining

    Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposit.These deposits form a mineralized commodity that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay.

  • Drilling patterns

    Introduction. Blasting tunnels (or drifts) is a necessity in all underground mining operations. Drill and blast techniques are the most conventional and common method and is most useful in high UCS and homogeneous rock types albeit slower than other methods.

  • Shortwall Mining | Introduction | underground COAL

    Shortwall Mining. This method of mining was developed in the late 1960''s to take advantage of the then recent development of suitable hydraulic longwall supports, coupled with the productivity and low capital cost of continuous miners and shuttle cars. In effect it gained some of the advantages of longwall mining without the cost of installing ...

  • Introduction to Mining

    Introduction to Mining Presented by the Department of Mining Engineering, University of Pretoria Course content Module 1 Geology and Mine Design Approach Module 2 Surface Mining Module 3 Underground Mining Module 4 Process to Customer Module 5 Mineral and Mining Economics Module 6 Risk management Learning outcomes

  • Underground Mining Transportation Systems

    Underground mines have changed their operation systems in accordance with the evolution of equipment, the system and method of mining. Transport is also of critical importance in underground mines as is the mining operation itself. The underground transport system of ores, materials, equipment and persons has been developed from

  • mining

    mining - mining - Underground mining: When any ore body lies a considerable distance below the surface, the amount of waste that has to be removed in order to uncover the ore through surface mining becomes prohibitive, and underground techniques must be considered. Counting against underground mining are the costs, which, for each ton of material mined, are much higher underground than on …

  • Underground Mining Methods Handbook

    Underground Mining Methods Handbook by W.A. Hustulid, Editor Society of Mining Engineers 1982 - 1794 Pages. General Mine Design Considerations

  • Generic Underground Induction for Coal Mines (GUI ...

    Course overview. Our Generic Underground Induction (GUI) course gives you the required skills and knowledge to be able to enter the underground coal mining industry and pursue a career as an underground coal mine operator, working under direct supervision. This course also covers the requirement of QLD Standard 11 and the Underground Coal Mine ...

  • Introduction to Mine Ventilating Principles and Practices

    Introduction to Mine Ventilating Principles and Practices Author: Bureau of Mines Keywords: Mining industry; Underground mining; Ventilation; Ventilation systems; Coal mining; Air flow Created Date: 2/29/2008 2:51:28 AM

  • 3 Technologies in Exploration, Mining, and Processing ...

    Underground mining is used when the deposit is too deep for surface mining or there is a restriction on the use of the surface land. ... the introduction of longwall coal mining, and recently in-situ mining and automated mining. At the turn of the twenty-first century, even as the U.S. mining industry is setting impressive records in ...

  • Lecture 4: Underground Mining

     · Lecture 4: Underground Mining 1. Hassan Z. Harraz [email protected] 2010- 2011 This material is intended for use in lectures, presentations and as handouts to students, and is provided in Power point format so as to allow customization for the individual needs of course instructors.

  • Innovations: Introduction to Copper: Mining & Extraction

    Underground mining is, however, relatively expensive and is generally limited to rich ores. El Teniente, in Chile, is the world''s largest underground copper mine. Open pit mining is employed when the orebodies are extensive, low in grade, and relatively near the surface, where they can be quarried after removal of overburden.

  • Underground mining methods

     · Underground mining: Mineral exploitation in which all the extraction is carried out beneath the surface of earth. Underground mining methods: These are the methods/techniques employed when the depth of the deposit,the stripping ratio of the overburden to ore,or both becomes excessive to surface exploitation.

  • Introduction to Underground Mining

    The Introduction to Underground Mining program is 306-hours of primarily hands-on training. Students first spend approximately 48 hours in Whitehorse-based classes that discuss introductory mine-related information, health and safety certifications and coaching services.

  • 5 Technologies That Can Transform Underground Mining ...

     · The very first and the most influential technology in the mining industry is the introduction of robot machines. While its application may be a bit limited right now, it can greatly improve the potential of mining in the future. Different robots can be designed to perform a variety of tasks such as drilling, blasting, bolting, and hauling.

  • Longwall Mining Overview | Introduction | underground COAL

    LONGWALL MINING Overview. In the method of secondary extraction known as longwall mining a relatively long mining face (typically in the range 100 to 300m but may be longer) is created by driving a roadway at right angles between two roadways that form the sides of the longwall block, with one rib of this new roadway forming the longwall face.

  • Edumine | Underground Mine Backfill 1

     · Underground Mine Backfill 1 - Introduction is the first in a set of two Underground Mine Backfill courses. This course is intended as an introduction to mine backfill properties, types, uses, mining methods and system layout. Underground Mine Backfill 2 - Slurry, Paste and Rock Fills reviews each backfill type and its preparation, distribution, stope preparation and placement practices as well ...


    The essence of mining in extracting mineral wealth from the earth is to drive an excavation or excavations from the surface to the mineral deposit. Normally, these openings into the earth are meant to allow personnel to enter into the underground deposit. However, boreholes are at times used to extract the mineral values from the earth.

  • CDC

     · Mining Publication: The Introduction of Roof Bolting to U.S. Underground Coal Mines (1948-1960): A Cautionary Tale. Keywords: Coal mining Roof bolts Roof fall protection Roof falls Support design and selection Underground mining. This page is archived for historical purposes and is no longer being maintained or updated.


    The Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation is grateful to Dr. Willard Lacy''s family for permission to publish this reformatted version of An Introduction to Geology and Hard Rock Mining.

  • What is Underground Mining? (with pictures)

    Mary McMahon Entrance to a coal mine. Underground mining is a technique used to access ores and valuable minerals in the ground by digging into the ground to extract them. This is in contrast with techniques like open pit mining, in which the surface layers of ground are scooped away to access deposits, or mountaintop removal, in which the top of a mountain is simply shaved off to access the ...

  • Introductory Mining Engineering: Hartman, Howard L ...

    An introductory text and reference on mining engineering highlighting the latest in mining technology Introductory Mining Engineering outlines the role of the mining engineer throughout the life of a mine, including prospecting for the deposit, determining the site''s value, developing the mine, extracting the mineral values, and reclaiming the land afterward.

  • How Underground Mining Works | HowStuffWorks

    The environmental toll of underground mining is significant. It includes air pollution, changes in water-flow patterns, chemical and gas seepage into water supplies and soil, inaccessible fires in abandoned mines, and dramatic changes in land composition that can make the area unusable after the mining operation is done [source: Saxena ].